RESOURCES.

A selection of helpful resources below...

The following research is provided in support of the noted benefits of fulvic. If the summaries here ignite your curiosity feel free to click on the links provided to access the full script or, where the paper is not freely available, the option to purchase a copy.

Effect of fulvic acid on oral delivery of Carbamazepine

Carbamazepine (CBZ) has poor bioavailability due to its low water solubility. As such, the complexation of CBZ with fulvic acid was explored to determine the effect of FA on bioavailability parameters. FA increased the solubility of CBZ by 2268.75%, and also demonstrated a better release profile of approximately 81% in 60 minutes. Further, the permeability of CBZ across everted rat gut sac increased 3 fold. Complexation of FA with CBZ was concluded as a promising tool for enhancing the bioavailability of CBZ.  

-       Mirza, MA, Agarwal, SP and Iqbal, Z, 2011, Effect of Fulvic Acid on Oral Delivery of Carbamazepine, Science of Advanced Materials, 3, 1-10

Disclaimer: People taking prescription medicines should check with their doctor before taking NZ Fulvic 

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Effect of humic substances on mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation

Fulvic and humic acids were shown to support respiration in rat liver mitochondria at certain concentrations, with low molecular weight fulvic fractions showing more significant results than high molecular weight humic material. Both compounds also increased the efficiency of the oxidative phosphorylation process, whereby mitochondria synthesize ATP, providing energy to vital cellular processes. 

-       Visser, SA, 1987, Effect of humic substances on mitochondrial respiration and oxidative phosphorylation, The Science of the Total Environment, 62, 347-354


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Fulvic acid: modifier of metal-ion chemistry

This article details the chemistry of fulvic acid, highlighting fulvic acid’s wide variety of aromatic and aliphatic structures, each of which bear many oxygen-containing functional groups. These functional groups can add or remove protons in solution, allowing it to behave as a polyelectrolyte and take part in numerous chemical reactions. 

-       Saar, RA and Weber, JH, 1982, Fulvic acid: modifier of metal-ion chemistry, Environ. Sci. Technol., 16, 9.  


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Inhibition effects of fulvic acids of different origins on the production of superoxide anion radical

The interaction between fulvic acids derived from different sources and the superoxide anion radical O2 was studied. O2 concentration decreased in the presence of all fulvic acids. Several possible processes associated with this observation were proposed including fulvic acid scavenges O2, binds it into its structure, or scavenges other radicals which can transform to O2. In any case, results demonstrated the ability of fulvic acid to interrupt the chain reaction of oxygenated free radicals. 

-       Wang, C, Liu, Y, Wang, Z and Peng, A, 1998, Inhibition effects of fulvic acids of different origins on the production of superoxide anion radical, Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry, 66, 171-179

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